To use PSlab you must first define the structure for simulation. In order to do this you need to load
the module `Geometry`

. Start Python interpreter (usually by entering command `python`

in
UN*X shell) and type

>>> from pslab import Geometry PSlab, version 0.1.1, Copyright (C) 2005 by Maciej Dems and Tomasz Czyszanowski Developed at Laboratory of Computer Physics, Technical University of Lodz Please note that PSlab comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under the conditions of GNU General Public Licence version 2, or any higher version. >>>

`Geometry3D`

object. Its constructor take two parameters, which are either the two-element tuples
of the lattice vectors componentsWe will run computation for the rectangular cell with all the distances expressed in its lattice constant, so we type

>>> geometry = Geometry.Geometry3D(1, 1) >>>

Now, having geometry defined, let's create some layers. Assume we want to run a simulation of photonic crystal slab having refractive index equal to 3.5 with air as the cladding. As the structure have an inverse symmetry in the plane paralel to the layers, we need to define only two layers - half of the slab core and cladding.

>>> core = Geometry.Layer(3.5**2) >>> cladding = Geometry.Layer(epsilon=1) >>>

`Layer`

class has the constructor which require at least one parameter - the permittivity of the bulk
of the layer. You can also specify permeability of the layer giving it as a second parameter. When you skip it
the default value 1 is assumed. If you wish you can give the parameters with thier names as in the following example,
in which case the order does not need to be preserved.
As every layer must have the finite thickness (specified at the later stage) we want to add also the absorbing PML as the boundary conditions. For this reason we must specify both and and what more they must have form of the diagonal tensor. With PSlab this is possible - you simple give the diagonal tensor components in the list in order

>>> sz = 1-2j >>> PML = Geometry.Layer(epsilon=[sz,sz,1/sz], mu=[sz,sz,1/sz]) >>>

To make our structure a photonic crystal let's add an air cylinder to the core

>>> core.addObject( Geometry.Cylinder(center=(0,0), radius=0.3, epsilon=1) ) >>>

Now we are ready to arrange our layers in a stack. We do this by using method `addLayer`

of our
`geometry`

object (mind the order of the layers -- for symmetric position the symmetry plane is
**before** the first layer)

>>> geometry.addLayer( core(0.3) ) >>> geometry.addLayer( cladding(4.0) ) >>> geometry.addLayer( PML(width=0.5) ) >>>

Having our structure defined lets run some simulation. For this purpose we must use the class `Simulation`

from the `pslab`

module

>>> from pslab import Simulation >>> simulation = Simulation(geometry, size=3) Creating Plane Wave grid... number of distinct layers: 3 number of inverse vectors: [7,7], total matrix size : 98 (49 planewaves) whole mesh is [104x104] Setting material coefficients for layer 0... Setting material coefficients for layer 1... layer has diagonal Q-matrix :) Setting material coefficients for layer 2... layer has diagonal Q-matrix :) Creating simple diagonalizer... Creating admittance-matrix solver... the stack consists of 3 layers, interface is after 0 layers the structure has symmetry in z direction >>>

`size`

parameter decides about the number of planewaves used. For three-dimenstional simulation
. Now we can for example find the eigenmode around some frequency for the default
wavevector (equal to zero).

>>> simulation.getMode(2.5) Searching directly for the mode starting from (2.5+0j) searching for the mode with Broyden method starting from (2.5+0j)... found mode at (2.53406515-6.0354957e-16j) >>>

The short example presented here can be found in `examples/example1.py`. Below there is the full file.

#!/usr/bin/python ## Import the program modules from pslab import Geometry, Simulation ## Declare the geometry. The unit cell is a 1x1 square geometry = Geometry.Geometry3D(1, 1) ## Fill it with some layers # PML has anisotropic electric and magnetic tensor sz = 1-2j PML = Geometry.Layer(epsilon=[sz,sz,1/sz], mu=[sz,sz,1/sz]) # Cladding is a uniform layer of air cladding = Geometry.Layer(1) # Core has isotropic epsilon equal to 12.25 and a circular air rod core = Geometry.Layer(12.25) core.addObject( Geometry.Cylinder(center=(0,0), radius=0.3, epsilon=1) ) ## Now construct a stack geometry.addLayer( core(0.3) ) geometry.addLayer( cladding(4.0) ) geometry.addLayer( PML(width=0.5) ) ## Define the simulation simulation = Simulation(geometry, size=3) ## Find some mode around angular frequency 0.5 c/a mode = simulation.getMode(2.5) print mode

- ... components
^{3.1} - The computational cell is a parallelogram with the edges defined by the lattice vectors.